Sunday, January 9, 2011

Understading Migraine and the Role of Myofascial Trigger Points

Migraine headaches co-exist in both fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFID), and can be a great factor in decreasing our pain threshold. It is like every nerve ending we have is fresh, raw and exposed. One more insult has us ready to explode.

Though we still don’t know for sure what causes migraine, we are learning. Cervicogenic migraine is a migraine attack that is perpetuated or preceded by neck pain. For me, and I suspect many others, I can feel the golf ball starting to form on the right side of my neck at the base of my skull, and I can feel little pea size or smaller trigger points even up my scalp. (I do have significant cervical disease, but this is different, it is myofascial, in the muscle). Before long, a whole cascade of events begins and the once latent trigger points (those that can be felt but aren’t painful until pressure is applied) in my face develop into full blown active TrPs, ones that hurt and radiate pain seemingly without warning without even touching them. I can feel them with my fingers and when I apply pressure, this helps if I can get them to release. If treatment is successful, you can feel them release under your finger, and sometime can feel the tell tale local twitch response. Treating all of these TrPs can help with the attack. It is when I neglect treating them before this point that I am more likely to have this migraine, and the greater the neglect, usually the more intense the headache.

Research now indicates that tension type headaches can certainly be the result of myofasical trigger points. See the following study and the comment by Devin Starlanyl, author and pioneer on understanding the centralization of FM and the peripheral input from myofascial trigger points

Fernandez-de-las-Penas C. 2010. New evidence for trigger point involvement in tension-type headaches. J Musculoskel Pain. 18(4):354-360. “Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common form of headache and its chronic form (chronic tension-type headache (CTTH)) is one of the most neglected and difficult headaches to treat. TTH is an overarching syndrome of ‘featureless’ headaches characterized by nothing but pain in the head.The term ‘tension-type’ has been chosen by the International Headache Society (ICHD-II) to offer a new heading underlining the uncertain pathogenesis, but indicating that some form of muscle tension may play a role.Hyperalgesic and allodynic responses support the role of both peripheral and central mechanisms in the development of the clinical picture of CTTH. In fact, it is suggested that central sensitization, a reduction in inhibitory pain mechanisms, and peripheral sensitization of muscle nociceptors are mechanisms involved in perceived pain in CTTH.Subjects who develop TTH have showed normal tenderness scores and pressure pain threshold levels before the beginning of the symptoms, which suggests that the mechanical hypersensitivity is rather a consequence than a risk factor for the development of TTH.” “Previous studies have found that TTH patients described their head pain as pressing, tightening, or soreness. Dull and tight heaviness are also pain quality features of TTH attacks. These pain features resemble the descriptions of clinically referred pain elicited by TrPs as described by Simons et al.” “Recent clinical studies have clearly demonstrated the relevance of active TrPs in CTTH. In fact, recent studies have described the referred pain elicited from two extra-ocular muscles, i.e., superior oblique and lateral rectus in patients with CTTH.” [DJS]

A myofascial trigger point (TrP) is a self-sustaining, irritable area in the
muscle that can be felt as a nodule in a taut band. This irritated spot causes
the muscle to gradually shorten, interfering with the motion function of the
muscle and causing weakness and pain.” (Book excerpt)

Migraines alter my life, my ability to think rationally, and breakdown my defenses. My migraines always start behind my right eye, whether they start from weather changes, an oops with my diet, stress, or my myofascial TrP disease (which scientists now believe all fibromyalgia patients may have in addition to the body-wide centrally mediated tenderness) they are still intense. Usually, when my migraines switch to the left, I know it is on its way out. Rarely, but when the attack begins on the left, it isn’t as severe, nor does it last as long. Most of my refractory migraines are cervicogenic in nature, and I believe that is because of the number of neglected trigger points and the connection with fibromyalgia. This peripheral pain impulse to my brain, keeps it in perpetual wind-up, not allowing it to function as it should to send out natural endorphins and chemicals to counteract the original upset.

Migraine perpetuators related to myofascial trigger points

Bruxism is a fancy term for grinding teeth. This condition can aggravate facial trigger points, interfere with restorative sleep, cause teeth erosion, and, among other things, contribute to migraines. If you catch yourself grinding your teeth during the day, you most likely grind at night too, and according to my dentist, bruxism in sleep is four times more forceful. Is it any wonder that myofascial trigger points develop? Assistive devices, such as a nighttime mouth guard, can inhibit some of the pain associated with the disorder. Proper alignment, may abate the development of TMJ/TMD, but the force of bruxism can be a great contributor to the development and recurrence of TrPs in the face and jaw.

Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD/TMJ), occurs when your chewing muscles are uncoordinated. This puts apposing muscles under undue stress and increases the occurrence of myofascial TrPs. Temporomandibular dysfunction is often associated with chronic muscular headaches and craniofacial pain. Pain can also extend to the ears, neck, and shoulders. Some people experience clicking and grinding noises during movement of the jaw, this limitation could be related to untreated or undertreated myofascial trigger points and pain that occurs anywhere there is muscle, including inside the mouth.

Poor posture and injury can also aggravate the neck and surrounding/supporting muscles, and trigger points in the neck can refer pain to the head and other places. (There are other topics here on my blog that explain how trigger points develop and cause pain and dysfunction).

Skeletal anomalies as the result of injury, surgery, spinal degeneration, or birth defect can put strain on opposing muscles and increase incidence of myofascial trigger points.


First find the TrP in the taut band of muscle. It may not be easy to do initially, it takes practice. If you can find a good myofascial therapist to help you, such as a chiropractor or physical therapist that does active release therapy (ART), or a myofascial trigger point therapist, to help you, and self treatment in between, you may be able to lessen your headache frequency or intensity if they are cervicogenic. With a myofascial tool or your fingers apply pressure and back off to about 70-80%, hold the pressure for about 30-60 seconds. You may feel the TrP release. Some are very resistant and may take several treatments. Also remember that the TrP you are treating may NOT be the primary TrP causing the development of a secondary or satellite TrP. I hope you will pick up a good book on self treatment of myofascial trigger points. My favorite is Clair Davies (Books are listed below).

Research on Botox (trademark) for migraine relief was promising, but the jury is still out on that one.

Wishing you all a migraine free day, lamb hugs, Celeste

Helpful links for understanding migraine

Book Resouroces:
• Celeste Cooper, Integrative Therapies for Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue
Syndrome and Myofascial Pain
• Devin Starlanyl & Mary Copeland, Fibromyalgia & Chronic Myofascial Pain Syndrome
• Clair Davies, The Trigger Point Therapy Workbook
• Valarie DeLaune, Trigger Point Therapy for Headaches & Migraines
• Donna Finando, Trigger Point Self-Care Manual
• Hal Blatman, Art of Body Maintenance: The Winner’s Guide to Pain Relief

Other research:

Gerwin RD. Fibromyalgia Tender Points at Examination Sites Specified by the American College of Rheumatology Criteria Are Almost Universally Myofascial Trigger Points. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2010 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA

Ge HY. Prevalence of myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia: the overlap of two common problems. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2010 Oct;14(5):339-45. Laboratory for Musculoskeletal Pain and Motor Control, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajersvej 7-D3, Aalborg, DK-9220, Denmark.

Saracco MG, Valfrè W, Cavallini M, Aguggia M. Greater occipital nerve block in chronic migraine. Neurol Sci. 2010 Jun;31 Suppl 1:S179-80.
Neurological Department, ASL AT-Asti, Ospedale Cardinal Massaia, Via Conte Verde 125, Asti, Italy

Delstanche S, Schoenen J. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of headache: a promising path on a "dead end road"? Acta Neurol Belg. 2010 Sep;110(3):221-9.
Headache Research Unit, Department of Neurology and GIGA-Neurosciences, Liège University.

1 comment:

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